PHO704 Week 10: The Digital – New Possbilities

This week’s coursework about the different digital media channels has been difficult, largely because although I use some of them I have little to no experience of using all of them. In addition, discussions tend to become dominated by Instagram but that is not the only channel available and for some people it may not be an appropriate one.

There are two different subjects here. First, there are the new digital media platforms available to artists in order to offer a new and often mixed media experience. And second there are the new digital media channels available on which to market one’s work – not the same thing at all.

I am very interested in what Anna-Maria Pfab said in her lecture about new digital platforms, in particular the New York Times virtual reality app launched in 2015, NYT VR (New York Times 2020, Pfab 2020). Although an app demands a great deal of time and investment capital, it is clear that, first, one can offer viewers a new experience combining both images and sound in many different ways, and second one can engage with an audience on smartphones massively larger than the audience on conventional PCs or photography websites. I am already looking at sound in my research project. Video takes it one stage further.

As for marketing one’s work using digital media, my feeling is that before one embarks on a digital media strategy it is important to have a very clear idea of what one wants to do, having already identified ways of measuring results and overall having already set some goals. Otherwise, one is exposing oneself to one of the dangers of digital media: investing a lot of time in something that is essentially fruitless and which is simply not paying its way.

So over the next six or so months may own ‘strategy’, if such it is, is likely to be this:

Instagram: I will continue to use my main account (it is a business account) but tweak it to give a better idea of whom I am, what I get up to and what I enjoy. I will only post work I would be happy to show my peers (i.e. not family snaps) but the overall intent will be to be interesting, relaxed and creative. A good example of how to do this is Tom Hunter’s Instagram feed (Hunter 2020).

Facebook, Twitter, TikTok. Facebook is strictly for family use in my case. I won’t use Twitter because I have serious concerns about the platform’s sanity and ethics. TikTok is up and coming but I am the wrong generation for its demographic.

Websites: I will maintain and keep current and tidy my portfolio website. However, it is clear that the focus for photographers has shifted to Instagram. A portfolio website may be needed as a showcase but the action is now elsewhere.

An Experiment

I have registered a new domain name for a brand I am devising called White Bridge Arts. This is for avowedly commercial material, in colour, quite distinct from my fine arts practice. My aim is to open a webshop on an Etsy-like sales site where I will offer images printed on mugs, T-shirts, cushion covers, duvets and other household items, as well as prints. Since all printing is on-demand by the owners of the site, the initial investment required is minimal (though the site’s commission on sales is quite high).

I will use this as a testbed and learning experience, and simply for some fun. Marketing will all be done under the White Bridge Arts brand, so if I decide to promote the shop on Instagram or elsewhere then I will open a new account under the brand name and use it purely for business. After six months I will take stock.  One tool I will use is Google Trends (Google 2020). As a free tool, it can be a very helpful way of noticing what is catching the public eye and what is fading from it.

And overall? I think my approach overall is a fair reflection of who I am. I love fine arts photography. However, I can’t stand snobbery or in-group thinking and I have a strong commercial streak. I do not want to become stuck and stale by hiding away in a single field.

References

GOOGLE. 2020. ‘Google Trends’. Google Trends [online]. Available at: https://trends.google.com/trends/?geo=US [accessed 27 Nov 2020].

HUNTER, Tom. 2020. ‘Tom Hunter Photography’ [Instagram]. Available at: https://www.instagram.com/tomhunterphotography/ [accessed 27 Nov 2020].

NEW YORK TIMES. 2020. ‘Immersive (AR/VR)’. New York Times [online]. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/spotlight/augmented-reality [accessed 27 Nov 2020].

PFAB, Anna-Maria. 2020. ‘Live Lecture’. Falmouth Flexible Photography [online]. Available at: https://recordings.reu1.blindsidenetworks.com/falmouth/1eb7c4fd28e98bd83a3a838e6bdfca0cc920f49f-1606328806458/capture/ [accessed 27 Nov 2020].

PHO704: Live Brief Challenge Presentations

This module’s Live Brief Challenges, which were presented yesterday, have turned out to be very worthwhile. I teamed up with Tim, Mark, Marcel, Stephen and John for what turned out to be an exercise in studying a new arts enterprise and then proposing a new branding for the enterprise together with a brand strategy and matching visual language going forward.

There was a lot to learn and these are the things that emerged for me:

  1. Collaboration and teamwork are central to a successful creative endeavour. It is important to treat differences of opinion not as points of conflict but as indications of a rich range of options. The challenge is to blend those different views into the best offer one can make.
  2. Research is vital. My research included taking two video courses in brands and marketing (Boyd 2020, Pederson 2017), looking at case studies of rebranding exercises by a commercial marketing agency (Summa 2020) and researching the likely market for the new arts enterprise we were pitching to. This led me to look not only at all kinds of arts enterprises, from the Frieze media and events company (Frieze 2020) to the Gagosian Gallery (Gagosian 2020) but also to look at what turned out to be a goldmine of data arising from the Burning Man festival in America and the Nowhere festival in Spain (Burning Man Journal 2019, Nowhere 2019). Both festivals assemble and make public full statistical data year-on-year about their audience and its demographics. By looking at hard data covering why people attend arts festivals, we were able to come much closer to answering a key question: what is your audience?
  3. A consistent visual language is an important part of branding. It can be deployed in different scenarios but if done well the language always tells your audience who you are. However, getting it right is very hard. We came up with an idea – using circles and spheres as a language (and eventually a logo) – but I think we all found it much more difficult than we thought to produce first-class work.
Contrapol Presentation-final-1
Fig.1 Live Brief Challenge 2020. From a presentation on brand promises.
Contrapol Presentation-final-2
Fig. 2: Live Brief Challenge 2020. From a presentation on visual language and branding.

The principles involved here are really worthwhile. They are a lesson in thinking clearly about a project and identifying its key requirements. They are also a lesson in consistency and professional execution, things that are important not only for a commercial photographer but in many other walks of life. A part of what I will take away from the Live Challenge is ‘The Branding Process in Eight Steps’ (Chiaravalle and Findlay Schenck 2020), but in many ways this checklist should really be called ‘How to Think Clearly and Analyse a Problem in Eight Steps’.

  • Determine exactly what you are branding
  • Research everything about the product and its market
  • Position a brand by defining what makes it unique
  • Define a brand by stating what unique benefits it offers, what it stands for, what value it promises to deliver, and the brand image that will permeate all communications
  • Develop a brand identity including a logo and other signature elements and a brand ‘voice’ and use consistently in all communications
  • Launch using publicity, social media, promotions and presentations
  • Manage a brand by ensuring that it continues to deliver its brand promises fully and consistently
  • Monitor, evaluate and update a brand against changes in the market and in your own business

References

BOYD, Drew. 2020. ‘Branding Foundations’. LinkedIn Learning [online]. Available at: https://www.linkedin.com/learning/branding-foundations-2/building-a-successful-brand?u=56738929 [accessed 28 Oct 2020].

BURNING MAN JOURNAL. 2019. ‘Black Rock City Census’. Burning Man Journal [online]. Available at: https://journal.burningman.org/census/ [accessed 10 Oct 2020].

CHIARAVALLE, Bill and Barbara FINDLAY SCHENCK. 2020. ‘Branding For Dummies Cheat Sheet’. Branding for Dummies [online]. Available at: https://www.dummies.com/business/marketing/branding/branding-for-dummies-cheat-sheet/ [accessed 5 Oct 2020].

FRIEZE. 2020. ‘Home | Frieze’. Frieze [online]. Available at: https://www.frieze.com/ [accessed 6 Oct 2020].

GAGOSIAN. 2020. ‘Gagosian’. Gagosian [online]. Available at: https://gagosian.com/ [accessed 6 Oct 2020].

NOWHERE. 2019. ‘Nowhere Census 2019’. Nowhere [online]. Available at: https://www.goingnowhere.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Nowhere-Census-2019.pdf [accessed 10 Oct 2020].

PEDERSEN, Lindsay. 2017. ‘Create a Brand Strategy’. LinkedIn Learning [online]. Available at: https://www.linkedin.com/learning/create-a-brand-strategy/tailor?u=56738929 [accessed 28 Oct 2020].

SUMMA. 2020. ‘Case Studies’. Summa [online]. Available at: https://en.summa.es/proyectos/ [accessed 20 Nov 2020].

Figures

Figure 1. LIVE BRIEF CHALLENGE. 2020. ‘From a presentation on brand promises’. From: Live Brief Challenge (Falmouth University). 2020. Collection of the author.

Figure 2. LIVE BRIEF CHALLENGE. 2020. ‘From a presentation on visual language and branding’. From: Live Brief Challenge (Falmouth University). 2020. Collection of the author.

PHO704: Gerry Johansson and Storytelling

I have been looking at the practice of several photographers in connection with techniques of storytelling and narration. Some work in black and white exclusively while others do so for at least a part of the time.

The first on my list is Gerry Johansson. Mark Power has described Johansson’s images as ‘non-judgemental, deceptively simple celebrations of the ordinary’ (Power 2013) and it is certainly the case that Johansson’s images are typically rather melancholic, often appear to be empty of detail and are without a doubt carefully considered and composed. As Powell points out, however, closer inspection reveals that all the necessary detail is in the frame but it is just not the kind of detail one (perhaps lazily) expects to find.

Johansson himself appears to repudiate the idea that he Is telling stories at all: ‘“For me it is important not to create a story with the pictures,” says Gerry Johansson. “Normally when you edit you try to sequence the photographs. But for me it is important that each picture is considered as a single, individual image”’ (Warner 2019). However, the same interview then goes on to point out that ‘Johansson’s photography is largely driven by intuition, but when it comes to making a book, logic and order triumph. Almost all of his 31 photobooks are defined by their geography, if not the subject matter, and their equally-sized photographs are generally organised either alphabetically or chronologically, a bid to encourage readers to interpret them individually’ (Warner 2019).

In reality I think that Johansson most definitely has a story, or stories, and this shines through in his many photobooks. What is being talked about by Warner is more a matter of narration. The story in Johansson is often about feelings – of emptiness, wandering, strangeness and deracination. There are usually no people in his images, but the traces of them are everywhere. The images can be bleak and sometimes beautiful but in each case the story points the same way: this is what it feels like to visit the environment these people have created for themselves.

AmericanWinter-1
Fig. 1: Gerry Johansson 2018. From American Winter.

One can see this in, for example, Deutschland (Johansson 2012) and American Winter (Johansson 2018). And if the narration of a story is chronological or even alphabetical, then one can invoke narrative techniques – by time, by psychogeography, or even by taking the postmodernist approach suggested by Barthes in ‘The Death of the Author’ (Barthes 1977):  the viewer or reader constructs their own narrative from the various parts laid out before them street-map style.

The difference between story and narrative is best expressed in what is for me Johansson’s strongest project, Pontiac (Johansson 2011). It is a real town after the famous automobile brand, but it is also a place that embodies the American Rust Belt malaise and the country’s increasing inequality and divisions. All is shown with Johansson’s trademark simplicity and understatement, on the basis of taking the viewer on a walk through the town. Each image is captioned only with a street name.

Pontiac-1
Fig. 2: Gerry Johansson 2011. From Pontiac.

Without realizing it, I have been following a similar approach in my own research project. So what can I learn from a master of the technique? First, that no matter how much Johansson eschews formal storytelling, the images are in fact linked by signs and clues. Pontiac is a book of traces. It would be easy to say these traces add up to the pervasive malaise of the Rust Belt, but the impact of the book entirely derives from the fact that they don’t. What they add up to are communities doing the best they can in spite of the Rust Belt.

The second point is well expressed in a review of Pontiac by Joerg Colberg:

‘Unlike many other books about these kinds of town, Pontiac doesn’t seem to focus on one aspect at all. You get to see everything, from the inner city to the old and new suburbs, the churches, parking garages. It’s all there. There is a very clear and smart artistic agenda, but there is no obvious political agenda. The more often you look at the book, the more things you discover. It makes you think, but before it does that it makes you feel something’ (Colberg 2012).

I think Colberg is saying is that Pontiac is as much about an interior journey as an exterior one. This is a book in the poetic mode of documentary (Nichols 2017). If there is no political agenda then the mode of address cannot be expository, and although each image could be assessed as observational, the clues and traces that link the images are clearly poetic in intent.

These may be subtle distinctions but they are very important. They allow for a complex narrative technique, or a double narrative. On the surface, Pontiac is the story of a typical MidWest American town narrated by street name or by psychogeography. Beneath that, however, there is another and poetic narrative quietly arranged by clues and traces within the images. It is telling a different story. Nothing is quite what one thinks it is, until one realizes what is going on, and that careful narrative technique is precisely what ‘makes you feel something’ (Colberg 2012) – a very valuable lesson.

References

BARTHES, Roland. 1977. ‘The Death of the Author’. In Roland BARTHES and Stephen HEATH. 1977. Image Music Text. London: Fontana, 142-148.

COLBERG, Joerg. 2012. ‘Conscientious Review: Pontiac by Gerry Johansson’. Conscientious [online]. Available at: http://jmcolberg.com/weblog/2012/01/review_pontiac_by_gerry_johansson/ [accessed 10 Nov 2020].

NICHOLS, Bill. 2017. Introduction to Documentary. 3rd edn. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

JOHANSSON, Gerry. 2018. American Winter. London: MACK.

JOHANSSON, Gerry and Greger Ulf NILSON. 2012. Deutschland : [Photographs from 1993 and 2005-2012]. 1st edn. Strandbaden, Sweden, London: Johansson & Jansson AB.

JOHANSSON, Gerry. 2011. ‘Pontiac’. Gerry Johansson [online]. Available at: http://gerryjohansson.com/page2/page37/page37.html [accessed 10 Nov 2020].

POWER, Mark. 2013. ‘In Praise of … Gerry Johansson’. Mark Power [online]. Available at: https://www.markpower.co.uk/blog/In-Praise-of-Gerry-Johansson [accessed 10 Nov 2020].

SCHUHMACHER, Sören. 2013. ‘Gerry Johansson – “Deutschland” (2013)’. AMERICAN SUBURB X [online]. Available at: https://americansuburbx.com/2013/04/exhibition-review-germany-gerry-johansson-deutschland-2013.html [accessed 9 Nov 2020].

WARNER, Marigold. 2019. ‘American Winter by Gerry Johansson’. British Journal of Photography [online]. Available at: https://www.bjp-online.com/2019/01/american-winter-by-gerry-johansson/ [accessed 10 Nov 2020].

Figures

Figure 1. Gerry JOHANSSON. 2018. From: Gerry Johansson. 2018. American Winter. London: MACK.

Figure 2. Gerry JOHANSSON. 2011. From: Gerry Johansson. 2011. Pontiac. Available at: http://gerryjohansson.com/page2/page37/page37.html [accessed 10 Nov 2020].

PHO704: Documentary Modes

Introduction to Documentary by Bill Nichols (Nichols 2017) is about the history and narrative techniques of documentary filmmaking and the most important issues now facing the field.

My interest lies in what Nichols has to say about story and narrative in documentaries. Story and narrative are two different things and are not interchangeable. Put simply, a narrative is how a story is told or demonstrated. The story is all the events, characters and other elements that make up a narrative. (If there is a plot, then the plot will suggest some kind of relationship between the story’s various elements.)

Nichols’ approach is highly schematic. In particular, he identifies seven different documentary modes (Nichols 2017: 22-3):

  • Poetic mode
  • Expository mode
  • Observational mode
  • Participatory mode
  • Reflexive mode
  • Performative mode
  • Interactive mode

Much of the book is concerned with elucidating the differences between these modes. Each mode tends to have typical uses, for example, together with particular goals and ethical issues (Nichols 2017: 156-7). Each mode treats time and space differently, is distinct epistemologically, usually employs a different ‘voice’ and treatment of sound and has a rough equivalent in other media (Nichols 2017: 108-9). The modes may also make use of well-established models such as the investigative report, the travel piece, the poetic, the autobiographical, the history or the testimonial (Nichols 2017: 106-7).

Nichols pays particular attention to ‘voice’ in documentary filmmaking, by which he does not mean the literal spoken word. He explains:

‘The voice of documentary is each film’s specific way of expressing its way of seeing the world. The same topic and perspective on it can be expressed in different ways. … Voice, then, is a question of how the reasoning, analysis, feelings, and values in a documentary become conveyed to us. … Documentary voice is clearly akin to film style’ (Nichols 2017: 50).

This is important, because as Nichols points out, ‘Each voice is unique. This uniqueness stems from the concrete utilization of conventions and models, from techniques and modes, and from the specific pattern of encounter that takes place between filmmaker and subject’ (Nichols 2017: 53).

This sophisticated analysis matters because it is so close to how story and narrative may arise from a portfolio of still images. The techniques are similar – framing, composition, editing, jump cuts, mixed modes of expression and so forth. If a portfolio of images is accompanied by a soundtrack then its treatment would also be similar to the use of sound in various modes of documentary, as would captions. Captions are in fact an important element of ‘voice’ and require careful treatment. They may enhance an image, but equally they may subvert it, change the mode of expression, or spoil a poetic moment.

Where does my research project stand in relation to this? I think it is firmly in Nichols’ poetic mode. Qualities Nichols associates with the poetic mode include ‘Formal abstractions … see the familiar in a fresh way … Expressive … Discontinuous … images that build mood or pattern without full regard for their original proximity … may distort or exaggerate for aesthetic effect … Expressive desire to give new forms and fresh perspectives’ (Nichols 2017: 108).

These qualities do identify my work over this module. However, things are rarely clear cut. Just as documentary filmmakers mix modes in their work, so my research project occasionally strays into other territory. Some images, particularly of deprivation, are observational in their intent. Images of graffiti or signage with an apparent message could be considered expository. And, overall, a strongly personal work could be considered performative because such a work ‘seeks to move its audience into subjective alignment or affinity with its specific perspective on the world’ (Nichols 2017: 152). Whether or not I decide to change this, at least I am now more aware of what I am doing.

I am glad to have found such a detailed analysis. It leaves me with a better idea of where my research project fits in as well as with goals and techniques to concentrate on in the poetic mode. Nothing beats a clear intent. In addition, the work has given me a better understanding of the role of text and captions. These are not afterthought. I am building a ‘voice’ from many components and any one of them can change it.

References

NICHOLS, Bill. 2017. Introduction to Documentary. 3rd edn. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

PHO704: Instagram

Much of this module has been about learning to take a professional and consistent approach to one’s practice, without which it would be difficult to succeed as a commercial photographer. A crucial part of that is professional and consistent marketing and client relations. While I have no wish to become a commercial photographer, professionalism and consistency are valuable and useful disciplines that can be applied to many situations in life, so I am taking these lessons on board.

In connection with that, I have been looking at my Instagram account. At stake is changing it from a typical personal account into a business account and then applying ‘strictly business’ principles to running it. After all, Instagram is thought to have more than 1 billion members, more than 500 million active daily users and a repository of more than 50 billion images (increasing by nearly 1000 each second), and not to mention more than 500,000 active influencers and 75.3 per cent of US businesses with an account on the platform (Omnicore 2020).

In practice structuring a business account is not difficult. There are a lot of online tutorials and advice sheets out there. The best I have found so far is ‘How to Use Instagram for Business: A Practical 6-Step Guide’ by Hootsuite, a company that makes management software for social media accounts (Newberry 2020). There is also a video tutorial from the ever-reliable Sean Tucker (Tucker 2020). To this I can add ‘Basics of Business on Instagram’ (Timehin 2020), an excellent video by Ron Timehin who is now a successful commercial photographer having made his reputation on Instagram. Timehin concentrates more on nuts and bolts such as best-practice hashtagging, the grid of previously posted images, and engagement with others (an often overlooked but crucial factor).

All the advice in the world comes with two key provisos, however. The first is that to succeed on any social media platform one must have a clear focus in a distinct genre or subject area. No one becomes known for being a generalist and commissioning editors will pass you by, since there is no obvious message they can pick up. The second is that one does have to have talent. Put simply, people want great photos, ones with a wow factor in their chosen field.

Very few people have either the discipline or the talent to succeed which is why Instagram and other social media platforms can easily become an unproductive lottery. The statistics alone are overwhelming. I do plan to take a more business-like approach to Instagram but at the same time I do not intend to take it all that seriously. I am not sure that in my case the work required would produce sufficient results.

Besides, there are increasingly serious questions about social media generally as a vehicle for addiction and exploitation – see for example The Social Dilemma (Orlowski 2020) or John Naughton’s newspaper column (Naughton 2020). From a business perspective, it is also possible or even probable that Instagram will start to squeeze business accounts in order to extract more revenue from them – see ‘Will Instagram Business Profile Reach Follow the Same Path as Facebook Pages?’ (Hutchinson 2019). As the article puts it,

‘But really, overall, the main tip is to manage your expectations, and understand that such shifts can, and most likely will be coming. That’s not to say you shouldn’t use Instagram – you definitely should where it’s of benefit. But it’s important to do so in the understanding that any results you see may well be temporary. And as such, you need to establish other avenues, rather than building your foundations on rented land’ (Hutchinson 2019).

And that is the crux of the matter. Building on ‘rented land’ is generally a mug’s game, especially when the landlord is known to be rapacious. I have noticed that some really established fine arts photographers do not participate much on Instagram. Instead, they are known from hashtags and fan accounts, via their agents or galleries, or they run a general studio account. Among examples are Richard Misrach, Tim Walker and Jeff Wall. There is a strong case for saying that Instagram is best treated as a game, and a potentially dangerous game, and that in the long run it may well be better to plant one’s flag well away from ‘rented land’ and the appalling sharks that own it.

References

HUTCHINSON, Andrew. 2019. ‘Will Instagram Business Profile Reach Follow the Same Path as Facebook Pages?’ Social Media Today [online]. Available at: https://www.socialmediatoday.com/news/will-instagram-business-profile-reach-follow-the-same-path-as-facebook-page/561617/ [accessed 16 Nov 2020].

NAUGHTON, John. 2020. ‘The Social Dilemma: A Wake-up Call for a World Drunk on Dopamine?’. Guardian, 19 Sep [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/sep/19/the-social-dilemma-a-wake-up-call-for-a-world-drunk-on-dopamine [accessed 18 Nov 2020].

NEWBERRY, Christina. 2019. ‘How to Use Instagram for Business: A Simple 6-Step Guide’. Hootsuite [online]. Available at: https://blog.hootsuite.com/how-to-use-instagram-for-business/ [accessed 16 Nov 2020].

OMNICORE. 2020. ‘Instagram by the Numbers (2020): Stats, Demographics & Fun Facts’. Omnicore [online]. Available at: https://www.omnicoreagency.com/instagram-statistics/ [accessed 17 Nov 2020].

ORLOWSKI, Jeff. 2020. The Social Dilemma [Film]. Netflix. Available at: https://www.netflix.com/gb/title/81254224 [accessed 17 Nov 2020].

TIMEHIN, Ron. 2020. ‘Basics of Business on Instagram’. The Photography Show & The Video Show Virtual Festival [online]. Available at: https://photographyshow.vfairs.com/en/hall#topics-tab [accessed 29 Sep 2020].

TUCKER, Sean. 2019. ‘Instagram: Straight Talk for Photographers’. YouTube [online]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZUfvHioNs_A&t=964s [accessed 24 Sep 2020].

PHO704: Krass Clement

I like the practice of Krass Clement. I like the dark, brooding, rough-edged nature of his practice. It comes, he says, from ‘Scandinavian melancholy on the one hand and the “flaneur” tradition from the Parisian school on the other’ (Clement 2020). As someone who used to do a lot of street photography in gloomy London weather, I can understand that.

What particularly appeals to me about Clement’s practice is that he owns his work. Whether he is in Germany, Paris or Dublin, or his native Denmark, there is no mistaking that this is his experience of those places. That is why Clement’s images seem so authentic.

‘“All photography is, in a sense, a kind of self-portrait,” he continues. “To me, it is also deeply personal. Different moods, circumstances and environments affect what you perceive – so the similarities and differences [between those two books] relate to where you find yourself. If you ask Rudi, my publisher, he will say that it was the excellent Irish porridge that was the determining factor”’ (British Journal of Photography 2017).

(Please click on an image above for a Lightbox view and captions)

Clement is ‘more concerned with capturing a state of mind than with situations’ (Clement 2020), and on looking through his portfolios and what I can find online of his many photobooks one can see that he employs stream-of-consciousness techniques and sudden narrative jumps and switches. This is an essentially poetic way of approaching the world, and photography, and it resonates with me. As Alec Soth observed:

‘It’s true that I find poetry to be the medium most analogous to photography. Originally, this annoyed me, because I thought poetry was pretentious. But over time I’ve come to love it. … Like photography, poetry is about suggestion—it’s about leaving a place for the reader/viewer to fill in the gaps’ (Strecker 2020).

These are all important concerns for me. My project is moving from documentary into something much more subjective. It probably shares a certain brooding, low-light darkness with Clement but the real lesson here is that I need to own my practice, which means staying true to my experience and dropping emulation and ‘That image by X looked good so I will make something like it’. This does not work. Another lesson here is in forming and sequencing a story. Plodding along from A to B to C as if following a street map does not work either, at least not when one is approaching photography more as poetry than as documentary.

References

BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 2017. ‘Wandering through the Irish Capital in Krass Clement’s Dublin’. British Journal of Photography [online]. Available at: https://www.bjp-online.com/2017/11/krass-clement-dublin/ [accessed 27 October 2020].

CLEMENT, Krass. 2020. ‘Krass Clement – Photographer’. Krass Clement [online]. Available at: http://www.krassclement.com/introduction.html [accessed 28 October 2020].

STRECKER, Alexander. 2020. ‘Simply Paying Attention With Alec Soth’. LensCulture [online]. Available at: https://www.lensculture.com/articles/alec-soth-simply-paying-attention-with-alec-soth [accessed 28 Oct 2020].

Figures

Figure 1. Krass CLEMENT. 2017. Untitled. From: Krass Clement. 2017. Dublin. Bristol: RRB Photobooks.

Figure 2. Krass CLEMENT. 2003. Untitled. From: Krass Clement. 2003. Berlin Notat. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.

PHO704 Weeks 7-8: Work in Progress

I have continued to look for images in the manner of Tarkovsky in Stalker (Tarkovsky 1979). That means a ‘Zone’ of alterity and strangeness, using elements such as windows, passages and gaps to suggest portals between modes of consciousness. The idea is to create a story of what it feels like to be there, in that moment, far from one’s usual moorings and in a place that definitely does not resemble most people’s idea of Oxford or of any other popular tourist destination and architectural gem. So I am trying to show my Oxford, not someone else’s, much as Krass Clement photographed his Dublin (British Journal of Photography 2017).

Clicking on an image in the gallery will produce a larger lightbox view.

References

BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 2017. ‘Wandering through the Irish Capital in Krass Clement’s Dublin’. British Journal of Photography [online]. Available at: https://www.bjp-online.com/2017/11/krass-clement-dublin/ [accessed 4 Nov 2020].

TARKOVSKY, Andrei. 1979. Stalker. [Film].

Figures

Figures 1-8. Mark CREAN. 2020. Work in progress. From: Mark Crean. 2020. Silent City. Collection of the author.

PHO704: Images and Sound

I have been looking at the role of sound in photography and as a possible accompaniment to my research project.

I started with the artist and academic Angus Carlyle and his many works involving both photography and sound such as In the Shadow of the Silent Mountain (Carlyle 2015). This led me on to what I might describe as the psycho-geography of sound on websites such as Favourite Sounds (Favourite Sounds 2020) or Soundcities (Soundcities 2020) and even on commercial sites such as Atlas Obscura (Atlas Obscura 2020). I had not realized that mapping places by their sounds was so popular or so rich in possibilities.

Some of the world’s big cities have now been mapped by their myriad of different sounds, with each audio clip geotagged and then inserted into Google Maps. Thus, the viewer can navigate a city by its sounds simply by clicking the star points on a Google street map and listening to the attached clip. This has certainly set me thinking that it would be possible to do that with Oxford. So far as I know, no one yet has sound-mapped Oxford and doing so for me would mean little more than taking a recorder on my photography shoots and geotagging the clips with my smartphone.

However, using sound in this way may be fascinating but it is also a documentary and firmly indexical approach. My research project is not documentary but more poetic and conceptual. Sound, if I used it in my research project, would need to be carefully woven into the images until it had become part of the story and not, as with a documentary approach, offered simply a parallel aural track.

This has led me to consider Andrei Tarkovsky’s very careful use of sound in his films, mainly with the Russian composer Eduard Artemyev. In fact Artemyev’s soundtracks for Tarkovsky’s films are so highly regarded that they have been released as stand-alone albums. There is a fascinating paper by Metin Colak, ‘The Functions of Sound in Tarkovsky’s Films’ (Colak 2013), which suggests how Tarkovsky used sound in his films to reinforce, suggest or subvert the story lines of, among others, Solaris, Stalker and Mirror. A key point is that natural and composed sound is so carefully interleaved that it is sometimes difficult to know whether one is listening to water dripping or to Eduard Artemyev’s score.

It is clear that Tarkovsky treated sound like poetry and used it as delicately:

‘I find music in film most acceptable when it is used like a refrain. When we come across a refrain in poetry we return, already in possession of what we have read, to the first cause which prompted the poet to write the lines originally. The refrain brings us back to our first experience of entering that poetic world, making it immediate and at the same time renewing it …  By using music, it is possible for the director to prompt the emotions of the audience in a particular direction, by widening the range of their perception of the visual image. …  Perception is deepened’ (Tarkvosky 158).

Properly employed, therefore, the sounds we hear in a work of art are ‘the sounds of a person’s interior world’ (Tarkovsky 162). This is where sound and my research project meet.

Misrach Border-Cantos
Fig.1: Richard Misrach 2020. Website landing page for the ’Border Cantos’, a collaboration between Misrach and the composer Guillermo Galindo.

Using sound in this way is both exciting and challenging. It also connects to Mark Fisher’s essay on art of all kinds in connection with the weird and the eerie (Fisher 2016). Fisher covers Tarkovsky but he singles out Brian Eno in connection with sound, particularly Ambient 4: On Land (Eno 1982) which embodies the British landscape. A soundscape that accomplished for a project like mine would be a dream, although soundscapes are not hard to come by. MyNoise, for example, offers 200 different sound generators on a single webpage (myNoise 2020) and the result could easily be inserted into a project.

However, to make images and sound work together artistically is another story. An excellent example is the Border Cantos, a marvellous collaboration between Richard Misrach and the composer Guillermo Galindo (Misrach 2020) using instruments made from discarded items on the US-Mexico border. The result is, again, ‘the sounds of a person’s interior world’ (Tarkovsky 162). It is also a good example of how a traditional fine arts photographer like Misrach is moving into new artistic territory made possible by more sophisticated internet tools..

I do plan to continue thinking about this idea. I suspect it is too complex to be folded into an MA course at a relatively late stage. A soundtrack of poor quality would be worse than none. However, for a post-MA, expanded project I think it could be brilliant. Everything would be deepened and the possibility of an audio-visual display rather than a conventional gallery show would become possible.

References

ATLAS OBSCURA. 2020. ‘Atlas Obscura – Curious and Wondrous Travel Destinations’. Atlas Obscura [online]. Available at: https://www.atlasobscura.com/ [accessed 8 Nov 2020].

CARLYLE, Angus. 2015. ‘In the Shadow of the Silent Mountain’. Angus Carlyle [online]. Available at: https://www.anguscarlyle.com/in-the-shadow-of-the-silent-mountain.html [accessed 8 Nov 2020].

COLAK, Metin. 2013. ‘The Functions of Sound in Tarkovsky’s Films’. Paper presented at Audio Technologies for Music and Media international conference,-Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey, 2013. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281837007_The_Functions_of_Sound_in_Tarkovsky’s_Films [accessed 9 Nov 2020].

ENO, Brian. 1982. Ambient 4: On Land [sound recording: CD]. Perf. Brian Eno et al. Rough Trade. Available at: https://www.roughtrade.com/gb/brian-eno/ambient-4-on-land [accessed 2 Oct 2020].

FAVOURITE SOUNDS. 2012. ‘Favourite Sounds’. Favourite Sounds [online]. Available at: https://www.favouritesounds.org/about.php?projectid=55 [accessed 9 Nov 2020].

FISHER, Mark. 2016. The Weird and the Eerie. London: Repeater.

MISRACH, Richard and Guillermo GALINDO. 2020. ‘Border Cantos’. Border Cantos [online]. Available at: http://bordercantos.com/ [accessed 9 Nov 2020].

MYNOISE. 2020. ‘Background Noises • Ambient Sounds’. myNoise [online]. Available at: https://mynoise.net/noiseMachines.php [accessed 10 Nov 2020].

SOUNDCITIES. 2020. ‘Soundcities by Stanza. The Global Soundmaps Project’. Soundcities [online]. Available at: https://www.soundcities.com/ [accessed 10 Nov 2020].

TARKOVSKY, Andrei. 1987. Sculpting in Time: Reflections on the Cinema. Austin: University of Texas.

Figures

Figure 1. Richard MISRACH, 2020. Website landing page for the ’Border Cantos’. From: Richard Misrach and Guillermo Galindo. 2020. ‘Border Cantos’. Border Cantos [online]. Available at: http://bordercantos.com/ [accessed 9 Nov 2020].

PHO704 Week 8: Photography and its Fine Arts Markets

This week has been helpful for its insights into the world of galleries, dealers, auctioneers and museums.

However, there is a lack of nuts and bolts here. For example, if a gallery takes on an artist or photographer, what kind of contract is involved and what are the artist’s or photographer’s typical obligations? Some more on that would have been helpful. I have found some articles and contract templates online – see Artquest 2020 and Dan Schultz 2017 – but it is hard to know how relevant they are.

The two larger questions here, however, are whether Fine Arts is a market I fit into and what in fact ‘Fine Arts’ actually means in terms of photography.

There seems considerable debate about what Fine Arts Photography really involves. As a category it is generally regarded as slippery, going back at least to Modernism and the work of Steichen, O’Keeffe, Weston and probably much earlier. Perhaps a satisfactory approach is Stephen Shore’s observation that ‘Pictures exist on a mental level that may be coincident with the depictive level – what the picture is showing – but does not mirror it. The mental level elaborates, refines, and embellishes our perceptions of the depictive level’ (Shore 2007: 97). Fine Arts Photography prioritizes aesthetics and conception far above the simply depictive, something recently addressed in Medium Format Magazine in connection with Ansel Adams’ ideas of ‘visualization’ (Gordon 2020):

‘ … the fine art photographer synthesizes the external event (the thing worthy of having your camera pointed at it) with the internal event (the intuitive recognition of an idea or concept related to the thing). Credit is due to Ansel Adams for these terms, the internal and external events … Ansel said: “Visualization is the most important factor in the making of a photograph. Visualization includes all the steps from selecting the subject to making the final print.”

‘ … The representational photographer depicts physical appearances as found and doesn’t typically interfere with the subject or the light. In contrast, the fine art photograph may be entirely the result of interference. The finished print might scarcely resemble the found state’ (Gordon 2020).

This approach is not only true to my own experience, but it allows Fine Arts Photography to incorporate other genres such as landscape and portraiture when those merge into it. Fashion is notably one and an example would be the practice of Tim Walker. Conceptual art is another important genre within Fine Art Photography, as in the work of artists such as Cindy Sherman and Jeff Wall.

However, one of the points in this week’s coursework  – see O’ Hagan 2012 and Heyman 2015 – is that what may motivate the artist and what the market makes of that may be very different things. It seems unlikely that, say, Paul Graham would consider himself a fine arts maker although to the art market he has become one. Tim Walker is forthright:

‘I find the word “art” a little bit self-congratulatory and I find it uncomfortable: I’m a photographer. Art isn’t decided at the moment it’s made – a lot of people would disagree with me, but I think time decides what art is. The most unlikely things become art. For me to say, “This is art photography,” I’m just not that sort of person; this is photography, this is me playing with a camera. Call it what you will but I would call it photography’ (Smith 2012).

While Snowdon is famously alleged to have claimed that photographs ‘should be seen in a magazine or a book and then be used to wrap up the fish and chucked away’.

Tim_Walker_Shoot-for-the-Moon
Fig. 1: Tim Walker 2019. From his book, Shoot for the Moon (Walker 2019). Walker has said, ‘I find the word “art” a little bit self-congratulatory and I find it uncomfortable: I’m a photographer’ (Smith 2012).

How do I fit into this? I think many of my images would fit into a fine arts definition since the images are made for conceptual and aesthetic reasons more than for documentary ones. I think I could see myself signing a contact with a gallery, on the basis of the kind of templates mentioned above. But I still see myself as a photographer rather than as an artist. Art is for others and the market to decide. Some of this week’s coursework suggests that the fine arts world is has more than its fair share of sharks, tycoons and money ramps, which is not really my world at all – even though as both Boll and Heyman point out, photograph is still only a very small percentage of the overall market for the arts (Boll 2011, Heyman 2015). In fact one can argue that the entire idea of Fine Arts Photography is something of a ramp following the ‘discovery’ of photography as a lucrative new revenue source by galleries and museums in the 1970s, as described by Douglas Crimp in his essay ‘The Museum’s Old, the Library’s New Subject’ (Crimp 1999). I could play ‘Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?’ but I am better as a contrarian snapper.

References

ARTQUEST. 2020. ‘Contracts with Galleries’. Artquest [online]. Available at: https://www.artquest.org.uk/artlaw-article/contracts-with-galleries/ [accessed 10 Nov 2020].

BOLL, Dirk. 2011. ‘The Structure of the Art Market’. In Dirk BOLL (ed.). Art for Sale: A Candid View of the Art Market. Ostfildern, Germany: Hatje Cantz, 29–49.

CRIMP, Douglas, 1999. ‘The Museum’s Old, the Library’s New Subject’. In Jessica EVANS and Stuart HALL (eds). 1999. Visual Culture: The Reader. London: SAGE, 213-23.

GORDON, Michael E. 2020. ‘Photography Is Easy. Art Is Hard.’ Medium Format Magazine [online]. Available at: https://mediumformat.com/photography-is-easy-art-is-hard/ [accessed 8 Nov 2020].

HEYMAN, Stephen. 2015. ‘Photography’s Place in the Global Art Market’. International New York Times [online]. Available at: https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.falmouth.ac.uk/docview/1678821643/805AA85CE9144436PQ/1?accountid=15894 [accessed 9 Nov 2020].

O’HAGAN, Sean. 2012. ‘Photography: A Guardian Masterclass: The World’s Most Expensive Photograph …Is of a Scene That Doesn’t Exist. Photography Critic Sean O’Hagan Examines the Changing Landscape of a Thriving Medium’. The Guardian [online]. Available at: https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.falmouth.ac.uk/docview/1159222358?pq-origsite=summon [accessed 8 Nov 2020].

SCHULTZ, Dan. 2017. ‘Art Gallery Contract’. Dan Schultz Fine Art [online]. Available at: https://www.danschultzfineart.com/art-gallery-contract/ [accessed 8 Nov 2020].

SHORE, Stephen. 2007. The Nature of Photographs. 2nd ed. London: Phaidon Press.

SMITH, Karl. 2012. ‘Interview with Tim Walker’. Tim Walker [online]. Available at: https://www.timwalkerphotography.com/articles/interview-with-tim-walker [accessed 10 Nov 2020].

WALKER, Tim. 2019. Shoot for the Moon. London: Thames and Hudson.

Figures

Figure 1. Tim WALKER. 2019. Untitled. From: Tim Walker. 2019. Shoot for the Moon. London: Thames and Hudson.

PHO704: Invisible Cities by Italo Calvino

Italo Calvino published Invisible Cities in 1972. It is a deceptively simple work, in which Marco Polo describes 55 increasingly improbable and fantastical cities to Kublai Khan while it gradually dawns on the reader that in each case Polo is in fact describing his home city, Venice. At the same time it also becomes clear that Polo is describing urban problems such as overcrowding and inequality that have a disturbingly modern rather than medieval ring.

Invisible Cities has turned out to be a highly influential work. It is postmodern in arrangement and poses all the postmodern questions about authority, identity, reality and structure. Even its arrangement is far more complex than first appears. The 55 cities described are grouped into 11 themes and are carefully arranged in a mathematical structure whose inspiration derives from the Oulipo literary circle of which Calvino was a member. Gerry Johansson’s decision to caption his photobook Pontiac by street name as if navigating a geographical matrix is strangely similar (Johansson 2010).

Invisible Cities has inspired many artists. In 2019 Manchester International Festival presented it as performance art involving music, dance, design and visuals (Kenton 2019). However, it is the novel’s influence on photography that really concerns me here. Invisible Cities is saying that reality is what we choose to make of it. There is no objective Venice, Paris, London or New York out there. We each make our own version and we make it anew each time we visit. As Jeanette Winterson wrote in a review of Invisible Cities,

‘Venice is a city you must design and build for yourself. The tourist Venice is a chimera, the historical Venice is a museum. The living Venice is the one where every canal and palazzo and sun-shy square, with its iron well and unlisted church, has been privately mapped. No one can show you Venice. There is no such place. Out of the multiple Venices, none authentic, only you can find the one that has any value. … Imagining Venice is imagining yourself, as Khan discovers – an unsettling exercise, but necessary, perhaps’ (Winterson 2001).

In some ways this knowledge – that reality is our own imagining – is an old as civilization. It is, for example, the opening sentence of the Buddhist Dhammapada: ‘All experience is preceded by mind, led by mind, made by mind’ (Fronsdal 2005). It is also at the core of Roland Barthes’ essay ‘The Death of the Author’ (Barthes 1977). Barthes points out that the idea of an all-powerful creator/author imposing a canonical version of anything is a fantasy (Barthes 1977). We write our own book, tell our own story out of the ingredients we find before us.

This realisation – that what I photograph is my reality and no one else’s – has had an electrifying effect on my practice. It relieves me of the burden of emulating or competing with anyone else, and so it is freeing. Nearly all images have at least some indexical value but at the same time they are also an expression of the mind behind the camera.

In turn this has helped me better to understand the practice of other photographers. One example is Maria Kapajeva’s book You Can Call Him Another Man, about a trove of images she found of her father’s life before she was born – and therefore of a man she both knew and did not know at all (Kapajeva 2018). An image, any image, shows what we both know and do not know. The image is free to acquire new meaning in whoever views it. It is not confined to the dusty reading of an archive.

ken-schles-invisible-city-2014
Fig. 1: Ken Schles 2014. From Invisible City. There is darkness on the edge of town …

A second example is Invisible City by Ken Schles (Schles 2014), a vintage noir journey around the junkie-ridden chaos of New York’s Lower East Side in the 1980s. The whole point of the book, however, is that this is his experience of New York, not yours or mine. As Schles points out,

‘We are solitary creatures situated in a place and point in time that is unique to each of us. The New York City my friends and neighbors knew was different from the NY I experienced. Let’s be honest: we’re all perpetual outsiders to each other’s experience. That’s the tragedy of being human. But we can struggle against that. So there’s possibility as well: we may be locked into our own place and time, but we can share our little revelations, those small realizations of the everyday, and share in whatever knowledge that might bring us or open us to. That’s a very human trait: the attempt to communicate something meaningful. Sharing these other ways of seeing gives us perspective on what each of us experiences’ (Bocchetto 2015).

Sharing our own experience while acknowledging that we are all outsiders to each other’s experience is the common theme here, whether Calvino, Kapajeva or Schles. I think it needs to become an important theme of my practice too.

References

BARTHES, Roland. 1977. ‘The Death of the Author’. In Roland BARTHES and Stephen HEATH. 1977. Image Music Text. London: Fontana, 142:148.

BOCCHETTO, Alex. 2015. ‘Ken Schles on “Invisible City” and “Night Walk”’. AMERICAN SUBURB X [online]. Available at: https://americansuburbx.com/2015/01/interview-ken-schles-on-invisible-city-night-walk-and-existential-impulses.html [accessed 3 Nov 2020].

CALVINO, Italo. 1997. Invisible Cities. London: Vintage.

FRONSDAL, Gil. 2005. The Dhammapada: A New Translation. Boston, MA.: Shambhala Publications.

JOHANSSON, Gerry. 2010. ‘Pontiac’. Gerry Johansson [online]. Available at: http://gerryjohansson.com/page2/page37/page37.html [accessed 3 Nov 2020].

KAPAJEVA, Maria. 2018. ‘You Can Call Him Another Man’. Maria Kapajeva [online]. Available at: http://www.mariakapajeva.com/book-to-order/ [accessed 26 Oct 2020].

KENTON, Tristram. 2019. ‘Manchester’s Mythical Makeover: Invisible Cities – Manchester International Festival’. Guardian [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/stage/gallery/2019/jul/04/invisible-cities-manchester-international-festival [accessed 29 Oct 2020].

SCHLES, Ken. 2014. Invisible City. New ed. Göttingen: Steidl.

WINTERSON, Jeanette. 2001. ‘Invisible Cities’. Jeanette Winterson [online]. Available at: http://www.jeanettewinterson.com/journalism/invisible-cities/ [accessed 28 Oct 2020].

Figures

Figure 1. Ken SCHLES. 2014. Untitled. From: Ken Schles. 2014. Invisible City. New ed. Göttingen: Steidl.