PHO704 Week 1: On Turning Professional

I have learned a lot from this week’s coursework. These are the points I have picked up:

1. It is very important to be authentic, which means one has to know oneself and establish a style or form of practice. It is not possible to make someone else’s photographs. Commissioning editors look out for authenticity and an original voice among a sea of all too similar ideas.

‘What I am looking for will carry with it the sense that the work is powered by the authentic concerns of the photographer, that it is in some way heartfelt and has an integrity to its approach and treatment of its subject. For me, the presence of that authentic voice is what lifts a body of work above the everyday’ (Read 2016: 218).

2. Thorough and ongoing research is vital. It is not possible to tell a story without research, and not is it possible to understand and let alone fulfil a client brief without research. Storytelling matters. All brands have a story. Most good conversations are about a story. Not everything is a story, but it is important to understand narrative and its dynamics. A good photographer today needs a working knowledge of journalistic practice.

‘The photographer needs to understand and implement the fundamental requirements of traditional storytelling based upon facts, but they need to go further than the journalist because they also need to this an understanding of visual language and visual narratives. … My point is not to underplay the importance of journalism to the journalist, but to understand that the photographer needs to take the fundamentals of good journalism and apply them to photography to ensure the images created transcend their ethereal surface nature and provide context and narrative information’ (Scott 2020).

3. Collaboration is important and is becoming more so. The days of the stand-alone auteur are long gone. Collaboration matters because increasingly clients are looking for a full cross-media submission. They want good images, but they also want good video, graphic design, web skills and communication skills. Only a team-based approach can provide this. Besides, it often takes feedback from others to give one a sense of where one is going and whether one’s ideas stand up.

In addition, collaboration matters because it is a gateway to your audience having fuller understanding of the work. It is no longer smart, if ever it was, to regard one’s audience as merely passive consumers. Audiences today want participation and empowerment. That means that ‘art’ today is increasingly defined as a collaboration between artist and audience. This requires a team-based approach because works are better understood when informed by the expertise of others. A coral reef makes for a pretty picture, but a picture of a coral reef accompanied by scientific data, environmental research and an understanding of wildlife and diversity make for a more interesting story about our world and climate change.

‘Importantly, working within the collaborative structure had the advantage of helping to constitute a group identity, which in turn led to the development of a mission statement in which a series of ethical and political objectives could be clearly defined. … The process of designing for visual information advocacy—a term that sums up how non governmental organisations employ imagery in order to garner public support—involves situating the photograph within a multimodal context. … The inclusion of additional modes has the function of anchoring meaning into the photograph by providing the audience with an awareness of the environmental or social problems relevant to a given location’ (Scott 2016: 232).

4. Multimedia is important, which means at least a working knowledge of stills, video, web and graphics. Clients are looking for flexibility and adaptability. As Lydia Pang says in her podcast On Commissioning, ‘ You’re a creative: what’s your output?’ – not where are your photographs, or video, or graphics (Pang 2020). The datastream is not compartmentalized.

5. One needs a good grasp of the nuts and bolts of the business. As Tom Seymour explains in his Falmouth video presentation, it’s all about the story, the angle, the edit, the source, the pitch, the press release (Seymour 2020). Each is a different stage, and each requires careful attention to get it right because otherwise one is not giving commissioning editors or potential clients the information they need on which to base a decision.

6. Have a plan and keep it tight. One needs to see oneself as a clearly defined brand and ensure that this flows through all one’s communications in a consistent way. That means self-knowledge: what one does, how one does it, who the audience are. Marketing is absolutely crucial. One has to learn how to market one’s brand. The nuts and bolts were set out in a recent video presentation by Charlie Giles of the Association of Photographers (Giles 2020).

Put like this, establishing oneself, marketing what one offers and delivering what the client wants sound an almost impossible Everest. In practice, however, I think it can be broken down into smaller and far less forbidding steps. An example would be Instagram. It is a platform that can be approached purely as a business tool. There are many tutorials and how-to documents out there now about the steps required to make Instagram work as a business tool rather than as a pleasure platform. This is a well-trodden path (see Timehin 2020).  Perhaps a similar approach – one subject at a time, broken down into steps – will make all the other elements easier to approach too.

Finally, there is no substitute for hard work and thinking on one’s feet. In creating and shooting a worldwide campaign for Panasonic cameras, Edmond Terakopian made nearly 15,000 images in all kinds of settings and several different countries in less than two months. He curated this down to less than 20 final images for the client. It must have been very demanding work – but he got the job (Terakopian 2020). I hope he was well rewarded!

References

GILES, Charlie. 2020. ‘The Fundamentals of Marketing Yourself as a Photographer’. The Photography Show & The Video Show Virtual Festival [online]. Available at: https://photographyshow.vfairs.com/en/hall#topics-tab [accessed 29 Sep 2020].

PANG, Lydia. 2020. ‘On Commissioning’. The Messy Truth [online]. Available at: https://podcasts.apple.com/gb/podcast/lydia-pang-on-commissioning/id1459128692?i=1000442904984 [accessed 21 Sep 2020)

READ, Shirley. 2016. ‘Essay: “Shirley Read: Finding and Knowing – Thinking about Ideas”’. In Shirley READ (ed.). Photographers and Research. Routledge, 218–22. Available at: https://www-taylorfrancis-com.ezproxy.falmouth.ac.uk/books/e/9781315730462 [accessed 21 Sep 2020].

SCOTT, Conohar. 2106. ‘Essay: “Conohar Scott: Collaborative Working”’. In Shirley READ (ed.). Photographers and Research. Routledge, 230–4. Available at: https://www-taylorfrancis-com.ezproxy.falmouth.ac.uk/books/e/9781315730462 [accessed 21 Sep 2020].

SCOTT, Grant. 2020. ‘Every Photographer Is a Journalist but Not Every Journalist Is a Photographer!’ ited Nations of Photography [online]. Available at: https://unitednationsofphotography.com/2020/07/18/every-photographer-is-a-journalist-but-not-every-journalist-is-a-photographer/ [accessed 29 Sep 2020].

SEYMOUR, Tom. 2020. ‘Creating a Press Campaign and Getting Published’. Falmouth Flexible Photography Hub [online]. Available at: https://recordings.reu1.blindsidenetworks.com/falmouth/44e40a05380d0df14d38c59bed78489db86b1e49-1600865116374/capture/ [accessed 29 Sep 2020].

TERAKOPIAN, Edmond. 2020. ‘Shooting an International Campaign’. The Photography Show & The Video Show Virtual Festival [online]. Available at: https://photographyshow.vfairs.com/en/hall#topics-tab [accessed 29 Sep 2020].

TIMEHIN, Ron. 2020. ‘Basics of Business on Instagram’. The Photography Show & The Video Show Virtual Festival [online]. Available at: https://photographyshow.vfairs.com/en/hall#topics-tab [accessed 29 Sep 2020].

PHO703 Weeks 3-5: Work in Progress

I have continued with my current research project, Hometown Nights, an exploration of my home city of Oxford after dark.

For the past few weeks I have mostly concentrated on the river Thames and the structures along its banks as it flows through the city. I still need a visit or two to the Oxford Canal, which begins here, and to one or two bridges as the Thames leaves Oxford – but, broadly, I have now covered most of this element of the project at least on a ‘first pass’ basis. It will look different, and in fact may look better, at other seasons of the year. We will see.

OxfordAtNight-June 28, 2020-X6280130
Fig. 1: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. Converted warehouses near Osney
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Fig. 2: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. St Frideswide’s at Osney.
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Fig. 3: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. St Mary’s at Iffley.
OxfodAtNight-June 14, 2020-X6140089
Fig. 4: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. By Folly Bridge.
OxfordAtNight-June 17, 2020-X6170035
Fig. 5: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. By Gasworks Bridge.
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Fig. 6: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. A sluice near Osney.
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Fig. 7: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. By River Garden.
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Fig. 8: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. The Folly at Folly Bridge.
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Fig. 9: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. By Gasworks Bridge.
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Fig. 10: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. Donnington Bridge.
OxfordAtNight-June 28, 2020-X6280127
Fig. 11: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. In Osney.
OxfordAtNight-June 28, 2020-X6280104
Fig. 12: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. The Thames at Osney.
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Fig. 13: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. The bank at River Park.
OxfordAtNight-June 28, 2020-X6280107
Fig. 14: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. North from Osney Bridge.
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Fig. 15: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. The Thames at Donnington.
OxfodAtNight-June 14, 2020-X6140079-Edit
Fig. 16: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. By Folly Bridge.
OxfordAtNight-June 28, 2020-X6280122-Edit
Fig. 17: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. Osney Bridge.
OxfodAtNight-June 14, 2020-X6140046
Fig. 18: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. By Gasworks Bridge.
untitled shoot-June 24, 2020-X6240035-Edit
Fig. 19: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. The lock-keeper’s cottage at Iffley.
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Fig. 20: Mark Crean 2020. Hometown Nights. In Iffley Village.

Figures

Figure 1. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. Converted warehouses near Osney. Collection of the author.
Figure 2. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. St Frideswide’s at Osney. Collection of the author.
Figure 3. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. St Mary’s at Iffley. Collection of the author.
Figure 4. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. By Folly Bridge. Collection of the author.
Figure 5. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. By Gasworks Bridge. Collection of the author.
Figure 6. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. A sluice near Osney. Collection of the author.
Figure 7. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. By River Garden. Collection of the author.
Figure 8. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. The Folly at Folly Bridge. Collection of the author.
Figure 9. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. By Gasworks Bridge. Collection of the author.
Figure 10. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. Donnington Bridge. Collection of the author.
Figure 11. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. In Osney. Collection of the author.
Figure 12. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. The Thames at Osney. Collection of the author.
Figure 13. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. The bank at River Park. Collection of the author.
Figure 14. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. North from Osney Bridge. Collection of the author.
Figure 15. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. The Thames at Donnington. Collection of the author.
Figure 16. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. By Folly Bridge. Collection of the author.
Figure 17. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. Osney Bridge. Collection of the author.
Figure 18. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. By Gasworks Bridge. Collection of the author.
Figure 19. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. The lock-keeper’s cottage at Iffley. Collection of the author.
Figure 20. Mark CREAN. 2020. Hometown Nights. In Iffley Village. Collection of the author.

PHO703 Week 1: Repeat Photography and Rephotography

What has emerged for me from this week’s topics of repeat photography and rephotography:

First, context is all. Without a powerful context or story line repeat photography – in the crude sense of then and now – does not strike me as very interesting. I am not sure it has really caught on. The Flickr Group ‘Looking into the Past’ cited by Jason Kalin (Kalin 2013: 172) has been moribund since 2016 and on Instagram the hashtag #rephotography has just 12,600 iterations.

The matter is very different with a context or story, however. Recently, before-and-after Covid-19 lockdown pictures of Venice or of smog-free views of the Himalayas from India have been hugely popular. Such images offer a visual record of a big and perhaps once-in-a-lifetime change.

Similarly effective was Now and Then, an exhibition of repeat photography by Daniel Meadows at the Bodleian Library last year in which portraits from the 1970s were shown next to re-photographs of the sitters two or three decades later (Crean 2019; Meadows 2019). The exhibition included audio recordings of the sitters describing their lives in deprived areas of northern England, and there were plenty of captions and background material including a talk and discussion with Meadows himself. In other words, this was not just the basic ‘then and now’ but a view into a story and into the lives of others.

Another recent exhibition, Shot in Soho, at the Photographers’ Gallery in London featured various photographers and their interpretations of the Soho area over the decades (Rodriguez 2019). The crucial distinction here is that each photographer offered a very clear story. A simple collection of images would not have been nearly so effective. Again, we were drawn into individual lives through the stories the photographers chose to tell.

Two more points I have picked up from this week.

First, I very much warm to the idea of repeat photography as a form of mnemonics, ‘a social practice for remembering, a particular orientation to memory, and thus a way of being in the world. Rephotography, rather than a representation of memory, suggests a practice of actively constructing and inhabiting memories and their times and places while also incorporating them into the present as active forces’ (Kalin 2013). This is very relevant because it is close to my current practice of urban photography.

Second is the perhaps unexpected conclusion that Mark Klett found emerging from his practice of rephotographing the landscapes of the early American Survey photographers such as Timothy O’Sullivan (Klett 2011). What emerged was that all subsequent photographers no matter how apparently different – whether Ansel Adams or Robert Adams – had employed the same world view without realising it. They had all seen nature and man as distinct and in opposition – there is the pristine wilderness and then man despoils it – but in reality they are not distinct. Man and nature are part of the same whole, a view instinctively understood by native peoples all over the world.

So, repeat photography can have some cultural surprises hiding inside it. Another good example is the history of Afghanistan drawn out by Simon Norfolk (Norfolk 2020) and his search for the photographic locations used by the nineteenth-century photographer John Burke: war after futile war, all driven by the almost exactly the same imperial delusions and all failing in almost exactly the same way. The images – both Norfolk’s and Burke’s – tell the story together, but just one or the other alone would not.

Distinct from repeat photography is rephotography, meaning the reinterpretation, re-creation or re-staging of the past. This strikes me as very different and much more creative and interesting. I do not have any particular thoughts about it right now but perhaps I will return to the subject. I liked the interview with Jeremy Deller (Mellor 2011), however, and this set me thinking about the place of rephotography in the practices of Jeff Wall and Gregory Crewdson, artists I really like – so I have plenty of interesting connections to follow up.

The overall connection which emerges from the whole week, however, is one word: collaboration.

References

CREAN, Mark. 2019. ‘Predator or Collaborator?’. Critical Research Journal [online]. Available at: https://markcrean.photography/index.php/2019/10/19/predator-or-collaborator/ [accessed 11 Jun 2020].

KALIN, Jason. 2013. ‘Remembering with Rephotography: A Social Practice for the Inventions of Memories’. Visual Communication Quarterly 20(3), 168–79 [online]. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.falmouth.ac.uk/login.aspx?direct=true&amp. [accessed 04 June 2020].

KLETT, Mark. 2011. ‘Repeat Photography in Landscape Research’. In Eric MARGOLIS and L. PAUWELS (eds.). The SAGE Handbook of Visual Research Methods. Los Angeles, Calif: SAGE, 114–31.

MEADOWS, Daniel. 2019. ‘Daniel Meadows: Now and Then’. Bodleian Libraries [online]. Available at: https://visit.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/display/daniel-meadows [accessed 11 Jun 2020].

MELLOR, David Alan. 2011. ‘Jeremy Deller Interviewed by David Alan Mellor’. Photoworks (17), 14–17 [online]. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.falmouth.ac.uk/login.aspx?direct=true&amp. [accessed 11 Jun 2020].

NORFOLK, Simon. 2020. ‘BURKE + NORFOLK’. Simon Norfolk [online]. Available at: https://www.simonnorfolk.com/burke-norfolk [accessed 11 Jun 2020].

RODRIGUEZ, Julian and Karen McQUAID. 2019. ‘Shot In Soho’. The Photographers’ Gallery [online]. Available at: https://thephotographersgallery.org.uk/whats-on/exhibition/shot-soho [accessed 11 Jun 2020].

PHO702 Week 6: Work in Progress

The topics in Week 6 have led me to think about the importance of context and decoding in my practice, the kind of power dynamics that may be going on in it, and how my work may be received by others – my audience.

Well, I could start by saying that I am a white, middle-aged, middle-class male – all true but also an invitation to self-castigation. All I can do is try to be as aware as possible of the influences that have formed me.

Context and decoding mean that I need to think carefully about what I am looking at before I press the shutter. I need to ask myself ‘What is really going on here?’ Otherwise, the danger is that I will end up photographing surfaces – shiny and alluring no doubt – but miss the dynamics of what lies beneath them.

Power dynamics lead straight to ethics. As a photographer I have a fair degree of control. I can choose when I press the shutter but my subjects cannot choose when or how they are photographed. I need to be aware of that and not objectify people or places.

The wider context of my work is that for the moment at least I am following in the footsteps of practitioners such as William Eggleston, Stephen Shore, Joel Sternfeld and Mark Power. This is all about finding the extraordinary in the ordinary, expressing the uncanny, not glossing over difficult social realities and power imbalances, and not privileging any particular thing over another. Everything is potentially material for my lens. In the words of Stephen Shore, ‘To see something spectacular and recognise it as a photograph is not making a very big leap. But to see something ordinary, something you’d see every day, and recognise it as a photographic possibility – that’s what I’m interested in.’ (O’Hagan 2015)

This feeds into thoughts about the audience for my work. These are photographers known for their books and so my intent is for a book in same tradition. A question to resolve is how to tell a story in such a book because a book tells a story whether one wants it to or not. Story-teling is very much a work in progress for me.

There are, however, many different kinds of book. This week has helped me to think about that. I do plan a fairly conventional photography book but looking at the practice of Dyanita Singh has led me to think that in addition I could produce many variant ‘books’. (Singh 2020). A ‘book’ can also be a box, a frame or a concertina containing cards not pages. Dyanita Singh, for example, offers her images in sets of many different formats.

SINGH, Dyanita. 2020. Pothi Box.
Fig.1: Dyanita Singh 2018. ‘The Pothi Box, an unbound book of 30 image cards held together in a wooden structure. It is meant to be hung on a wall or placed as an object on a table. The structure has been built to allow the collector to change the front image as often as they like. The image cards, however, exist as a set of 30 and are not meant to be separated from each other or the box.’ (Singh 2020)

Now, my work in progress this week. The first two slides contain material from Richard Misrach and Gueorgui Pinkhassov, text and images. This is the intent I tried to keep in my mind as I went out to photograph.

Richard Misrach Georgui Pinkhassov
Fig. 2. Richard Misrach and Georgui Pinkhassov
Richard Misrach Georgui Pinkhassov
Fig. 3. Richard Misrach and Georgui Pinkhassov
CREAN, Mark. 2020. Oxford at Night.
Fig. 4: Mark Crean 2020. Oxford at Night.
CREAN, Mark. 2020. Oxford at Night.
Fig. 5: Mark Crean 2020. Oxford at Night.
CREAN, Mark. 2020. Oxford at Night.
Fig. 6: Mark Crean 2020. Oxford at Night.
CREAN, Mark. 2020. Oxford at Night.
Fig. 7: Mark Crean 2020. Oxford at Night.
CREAN, Mark. 2020. Oxford at Night.
Fig. 8: Mark Crean 2020. Oxford at Night.
CREAN, Mark. 2020. Oxford at Night.
Fig 9: Mark Crean 2020. Oxford at Night.
CREAN, Mark. 2020. Oxford at Night.
Fig. 10: Mark Crean 2020. Oxford at Night.
CREAN, Mark. 2020. Oxford at Night.
Fig. 11: Mark Crean 2020. Oxford at Night.
CREAN, Mark. 2020. Oxford at Night.
Fig. 12: Mark Crean 2020. Oxford at Night.
CREAN, Mark. 2020. Oxford at Night.
Fig. 13: Mark Crean 2020. Oxford at Night.

 

References

HARRIS, Melissa. 2015. ‘An Archival Interview with Richard Misrach’. [online]. Available at: https://aperture.org/blog/archival-interview-richard-misrach/ [accessed 3 Mar 2020].

O’HAGAN, Sean. 2015. ‘Shady Character: How Stephen Shore Taught America to See in Living Colour’. [online]. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2015/jul/09/stephen-shore-america-colour-photography-1970s [accessed 4 Mar 2020].

PINKHASSOV, Gueorguy. 1998. Sightwalk. London: Phaidon.

PINKHASSOV, Gueorgui. 2020. ‘Sophistication Simplification – Magnum Photos’. [online]. Available at: https://www.magnumphotos.com/theory-and-practice/gueorgui-pinkhassov-sophistication-simplification/ [accessed 6 Mar 2020].

SINGH, Dyanita. 2020. ‘Dayanita Singh’. [online]. Available at http://dayanitasingh.net/ [accessed 4 Mar 2020].

Figures

Figure 1. Dyanita SINGH. 2018. ‘The Pothi Box’. Dyanita Singh [online]. Available at: http://dayanitasingh.net/pothi-box/ [accessed 9 Feb 2020].
Figure 2: Melissa HARRIS, 2015. ‘An Archival Interview with Richard Misrach’. Aperture [online]. Available at: https://aperture.org/blog/archival-interview-richard-misrach/ [accessed 3 Mar 2020];  Gueorgui PINKHASSOV. 2020. ‘Sophistication Simplification’. Magnum Photos [online]. Available at: https://www.magnumphotos.com/theory-and-practice/gueorgui-pinkhassov-sophistication-simplification/ [accessed 6 Mar 2020].
Figures 3. Richard MISRACH. 1975. Saguaro Cactus; Gueorgui PINKHASSOV. 2018. Blackpool illuminations.
Figures 4-13. Mark CREAN. 2020. Oxford at Night. Collection of the author.